Tuesday, October 15, 2019

How democracy is related to economic development Essay

How democracy is related to economic development - Essay Example Marx gave as example the histories of both England and France proved that economic development brought about democracy. Marx and his loyal fans, both within the bourgeoisie class, owned property and engaged in business as capitalists and entrepreneurs. Consequently, the bourgeoisie class led to the toppling of the prior authoritarian government, a replacement transition mode (Sfsu, 2014). The toppling resulted to the creation of democratic governments. The prior government was toppled because its policies ran smack against the very grain of laissez faire or free enterprise business concepts, based on transition theories (Sfsu, 2014). Likewise, Max Weber insisted that the fall of the profitability or viability of the bourgeoisie leaders to retain the economic development led to the destruction of the German democratic government. In the same light, Moore espoused the peasants contributed to the establishment of democratic government. The philosophers had espoused economic development leads to a better political communication environment. Further, Laothamatas adhered to Mr. S M. Lipset’s emphasis that an economically developed society will trigger the people to push for the implementation of a democratic state. The above article affirms the concept indicating economic development leads to viable democracy. M. K. Marx affirmed this concept. The bourgeoisie helped establish the economically viable democracy movements. Economic development priorities often led to free political elections within a democratic government. The reading affirms economic development contributes to the establishment and retention of democracy (Lipset, 1959, p 75). The economic wealth or status of the nation affects the nation’s democratic aspirations. Compared to a nation that is burdened with a low or bankrupt economy, a well to do nation (rich) has a better

Monday, October 14, 2019

Development of New Medicines A History

Development of New Medicines A History AnnaMaria Roca As many diseases were able to be cured due to new medicines, new diseases are soaring such as AIDS. However, peoples lives have expanded all around the world due to so many studies that even included drugs. As strange as it sounds, medical drugs became the new thing to cure certain diseases such as tuberculosis. During the time of the 20th century, the medical advances increased in many areas. The advancement evolved in many areas in biology, chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and technology. Due to the knowledge that brought to their understanding, diseases got new treatments and cures as more studies grew larger. â€Å"Toward the end of the 19th century the study of herbal, chemical, and mineral remedies (what was called material medica) was transformed into the laboratory science of pharmacology(Planetseed)†. Plant drugs such as opium were being analyized and examined. After a while, it was ready to be manufactured due to researchers becoming comfortable of their knowledge about the drugs. The pharmaceutical industry was marketing these products near the start of the 20th century. This is when aspirin was invented as the company Bayer used a systematic chemical named acetylsalicylic acid. Paul Ehrlich studied in pharmacology and created the first effective treatment for syphilis. He manufactured the arsenic-based compound Salvarsan in 1909. Ehrlich also created the word â€Å"chemotherapy† and due to that, formed the first antibiotic drug. Later on, a guy named Gerhard produced the first useful sulfa drug which is also an antibiotic. This was used to treat streptoccal, strep, and diseases, including meningitis. Even though viral diseases weren’t being cured by antibiotics, antiviral vaccines did. Smallpox and polio were important to the vaccines that cured them. Polio, which is mainly a disease of childhood, causes paralysis. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were two scientist that worke to develop a polio vaccine. However, two different versions of this vaccine were developled, which were brought into the world in the mid-1950s. Salk’s developed the vaccine that was used on the deadly virus, while Sabin’s was used on the live one. Both that were used resulted in success. Polio was mostly put to rest by the end of the 20th century. In the 1920s, Alexander Fleming studied mold samples and found something that could be very important in the medical field. Mold was growing on bacteria samples which killed them. He recognized the mold as penicillin. During World War II, they used this with their extended research on injured soldiers to test it out the new drug. It proved very effective against anthrax, tetanus, and syphilis. This was also the first drug that worked against pneumonia. â€Å"Antiretroviral drugs were developed in the 1980s to combat AIDS. (Retroviruses are a class of virus.) Viruses mutate so quickly, however, that developing antiviral (and antiretroviral) agents has proved very difficult (Planetseed)†. So due to this, the multiple studies and hard work to develop a vaccine for malaria and AIDS are unsuccessful. Other antiviral vaccines were also developed to cure measles, chickenpox, and influenza. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and shingles became available in 2006. The first antiviral drug in the 1970’s were acyclovir that helped against some forms of herpes. However, this doesn’t cure herpes but its useful for not breaking out in herpe sores or blisters. Researchers have used many different approaches to develop drugs for patients. One major revolution in treating illnesses was a new understanding of theimmune system. The advancement in immunology has brought progress to all of the autoimmune diseases. The autoimmune diseases include type 1 diabetes, lupus, muscular dystrophy, and rheumatoid arthritis.the research has led to the development of immunotherapy. That would the use of drugs to modify the immune system. As immunosuppressive drugs help treat autoimmune diseases, it also is a great success in the area of organ transplantation. First transplant to occur where the kidneys and then soon later become the first heart transplants. However, those patients didn’t survive that long due to their body’s immune system rejecting the new organs. Cyclosporins was then created as the first effective immunosuppressive drug to fix that problem. This advanced even further for todays modern surgery that allows any organ of the human body to be transplanted from one individual to another. AIDS brought the science of immunology to new studies. AIDS was considered a death sentence since it destroy s the immune system as it resists infection. However, antiretroviral drug treatments extends the lives of individuals for years who are infected for many years, but it still doesn’t have a real cure. Studies in the immunological medical search also dealt with genetics. The body’s cells and organisms that could infect it were studied. They then understood the roles of genes, the chromosomes and cell metabolism. Deocyribonuclei acid, also known as DNA is located at the core of the chromosome. After the study of the body’s cells, the biggest breakthrough then happened. A biochemist Frank Crick, and biologist James Watson were able to interpret the structure of DNA and were then able to use it in medicine. They found out that many diseases can be drawn to genes or defective chromosomes. Due to these findings, it is now possible to be tested for diseases like cystic fibrosis, huntingtyons chorea and forms of breast cancer. Genetic engineering even allows us to generate new drugs such as insulin, interferon, human growth hormone, and other hormones used to stimulate blood cell production. Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X-rays and made it capable to look at the internal organs of the body. This resulted in easier diagnoses for broken bones, cancer, and other diseases. Later on a physiologist, invented the first electrocardiograph. This was used for people with heart problems which the device was used to record electrical activity of the heart muscles. Tubes were then used to drain fluids or used to put in medicine were put into the heart and liver. The technologies that were discovered were ultrasound imaging, computerized tomography scans, positron emission tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging. X-rays are a form of radiation which you would consider very dangerous to the body. After a while Radiologists realized that x rays were a form of radiation and are very dangerous to the body which resulted in them now using the lowest doses possible. They also became more knowledgeable about the use of X-rays to destroy unwanted cells. Radiation has become a treatment for cancer. Technology also helps people who need surgery. It allows the surgeon to look into further of the body which also allows radical invasive surgeries. Flexible endoscopes also became useful for hernias, gall bladders, kidneys, and knees. It is based on a fiber optic technology which is used for a keyhole surgery. It is a scope that has a laser which can cut like a sharp knife which makes a tiny incision. During the mid 20th century, a heart-lung machine was manufactured. It keeps patients alive by maintaining blood circulation while a surgeon is operating on an unbeating heart. Artificial organs are also a development that became useful for many individuals. Due to the fact that there aren’t enough organs for people, artificial organs help them to survive until one is found for them. Hemodialysis which was developed by a scientist named Willem Kolff. It helps patients live longer with kidney failure. Missing limbs were also being helped due to the development of prosthetics. Artificial limbs use to be made of metal and wood which later on turned into plastic that was developed in the mid-20th century. â€Å"But now, advanced materials, such as carbon fiber, high-tech plastics and metals, have enabled researchers to create devices that operate by electronic attachment to the muscles(Planetseed)†. In otherwords, Individuals lives have expanded all around the world due to so many studies of different things. The medical advancement evolved in many areas in biology, chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and technology. Due to the knowledge that brought to their understanding like the medical drugs becoming a factor of helping people. As the studies grow, the more treamtns and cure grow because that is the key factor to it all. Studying and learning and eventually achieving what you’ve been working hard for doesn’t only help yourself but other lives as well. WORKS CITED: 20th Century Medical Advances | History of Medicine | PlanetSEED. 20th Century Medical Advances | History of Medicine | PlanetSEED. Web. 18 May 2015. Parker, Steve. Medical Advances. Austin, Tex.: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1998. Print. Fong, Kevin. Extreme Medicine: How Exploration Transformed Medicine in the Twentieth Century. 2014. Print.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Present State Of Neutrino Masses :: essays research papers

One of the current questions in physics is whether or not neutrinos have mass and what this mass is. Neutrinos are subatomic particles that have no electrical charge and interact only via the weak nuclear force. They are products of radioactive decay processes, and thus are produced abundantly in our Sun, our atmosphere, and in other astrophysical sources such as supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Millions and millions of them are crossing through the Earth every second, but only very few of them will interact with the Earth. In practice you can say they are invisible. But fortunately we can detect them by building a very large detector and waiting long enough. There are several reasons to search for a possible non-zero neutrino mass. Fermion masses in general are one of the major mysteries/problems of the standard model. Observation or nonobservation of the neutrino masses could introduce a useful new perspective on the subject. Nonzero neutrino masses are predicted in most extensions of the standard model. They therefore constitute a powerful probe of new physics. Also, there may be a hot dark matter component to the universe. If so, neutrinos would be (one of) the most important things in the universe. The observed spectral distortion and deficit of solar neutrinos is most easily accounted for by the oscillations/conversions of a massive neutrino. The largest neutrino detector is the Super-Kamiokande and is located in the Kamioka Mine, about 200 km north of Tokyo. It is water cerenkov detector, which means it is a large (40 meters diameter by 40 meters tall) tank of ultra-pure water viewed by thousands of sensitive phototubes. Super-Kamiokande will address some of the most important open questions in physics today, such as: why does the Sun appear to produce only half as many neutrinos as theory would predict? Do neutrinos have mass? Do protons decay, as predicted by Grand Unification Theory? One source of neutrinos are nuclear reactions. Inside our Sun nuclear reactions are occurring on a gigantic scale. Lots of neutrinos are produced. There are enough of them, that when they reach the Earth they can still be detected. Since physicists can calculate how many of them should be seen, there is a big problem because we see too few, roughly two times too few. This is so called the solar neutrino problem. There can be several solutions to the puzzle. One is that we do not understand the Sun well enough.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Electric Light Orchestra :: essays research papers

The Electric Light Orchestra   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The biggest compliment a band can get is to have another singer write a song about how much they like them, as Randy Newman did in 1979 about ELO with the release of â€Å"‘The Story of a Rock and Roll Band.† In the song he said, â€Å"I love their â€Å"Mr. Blue Sky† Almost my favorite is â€Å"Turn to Stone† And how ‘bout â€Å"Telephone Line†? I love that ELO’† (Wild 5)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The band created in 1971 by Jeff Lynne, Roy Wood, and Bev Bevan used cellos and violins to create a classical sound. Although Roy Wood left shortly after their first record was released. The idea came about when Jeff Lynne said to Roy Wood, â€Å"‘What if we had a band with strings- real strings?’† (Wild 9) They were in The Move at the time and decided to create a band on the side. They called this experimental band The Electric Light Orchestra. â€Å"Of the groups name Lynne remembers, ‘At the time people thought ‘ELO’ was pretty bad. It was like ‘The Electric Light what?’ The name was as wacky as the idea really.’† (Wild 9)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeff Lynn was one of the most important members of the band. He was born on December 30, 1947 in Birmingham in the United Kingdom. Lynne was interested in music while he was still in school. When he was fifteen years his father got him a guitar. Though it was made of plastic and had only one string he practiced it all the time. (Petersdorff 3) Jeff was a big Beatles fan. â€Å"Lynne is asked if he now admits to being a Beatles fan. ‘I confess,’ Lynne says with a laugh. ‘I’m dead guilty of being a Beatles fan.’† (Wild 10)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another founding member of the band was Bev Bevan. He was born Beverly Bevan in Birmingham, U.K. on November 25, 1945. He formed his first professional band, called Denny Lain and the Diplomats, in 1963.He retired from music to become a furniture salesman, but then joined Carl Wayne and the Vikings. He then later joined The Move and helped create ELO. (Petersdorff 4)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The third important member of ELO was Richard Tandy. Tandy was born on March 26, 1948 in Birmingham, U.K. At Moseley Grammar School he had been taught to play bass and guitar. Tandy’s first gig was at Solihull Civic Hall when he was fifteen. He was in many different bands before joining ELO.

Friday, October 11, 2019

An analysis of why economic sanctions are good Essay

â€Å"A person may cause evil to others not only by his actions but by his inaction, and in either case he is justly accountable to them for the injury.† John Mills OR Senator John Kerry once said â€Å"We must retool our nation to prepare for the challenge we already face to maintain our position in the global economy. And this much is certain: America will not have national security without economic security.† Therefore, I negate the resolution that: Resolved: Economic sanctions ought not to be used to achieve foreign policy objectives Definitions: Economic Sanctions- Economic penalties, such as stoppage of trade and financial transactions, imposed upon a country to force compliance with another country’s or UN’s or WTO’s demands. (businessdictionary.com) Ought- used to express obligation. Foreign Policy- the policy of a sovereign state in its interaction with other sovereign states. Objectives- : an aim, goal, or end of action. (In case of argumentation relating to resolve not confined to U.S.A) Sovereign- one that exercises supreme authority within a limited sphere. All unspecified definitions are from Merriam Webster Core Value: Societal Welfare- What is best for most of society Value Criterion- The neg shall prevail if I can prove that economic sanctions are a worthwhile method to achieve foreign policy objectives. But the aff shall prevail if, and only if he can prove otherwise†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ C1: Smart economic sanctions are needed to compel foreign leaders. The resolution calls for a general ban on economic sanctions in dealing with foreign policy objectives. One of the foremost arguments against sanctions is the harm they may potentially bring. But these potential harms are mostly caused the imposition of broad, wide-ranging sanctions. But not all sanctions are harmful- there are good sanctions. The sanctions in the 21st century are targeted and narrow, not general. One of the common criticisms of economic sanctions is that they have injured civilian populations in the past. The problem with this line of reasoning is that it assumes that there is only one type of sanction to use, and that this type of sanctioning must necessarily hurt civilians. Most countries now understand that wide, indiscriminate sanction use may be counterproductive, so they take a smarter, tailored approach to economic sanctions that make sanctions more likely to achieve their policy objectives. Many countries now tailor their sanctions to specific goods. For exa mple, many countries place specific sanctions on narcotics related items or on materials that could be used to make weapons. These tailored sanctions still allow civilians to meet their basic needs, but also make it so that rogue states are unable to use their material resources to cause further harm. Additionally, economic sanctions are now being used to freeze assets and limit the travel of high ranking state officials, which puts pressure only on them to change their country’s policies. These â€Å"smart sanctions† create an opportunity for change without the harms that occurred from past sanctions. Another line of argument for the Neg is the â€Å"toolbox† argument: that the Affirmative would remove critical tools, including targeted sanctions, from the government’s disposal. This would lead to a second dilemma, this time for the Affirmative: without the carrot and stick of economic sanctions, the government is left with a feather of non-economic sanctions and the bloody spike of war. C2: Economic sanctions are necessary foreign policy tools So what are the alternatives to sanctions? More diplomacy and military action. These have the problem of being two extremes meaning that there needs to be something in the middle. Diplomacy is the most obvious alternative. It would be lovely if all foreign policy objectives could be met simply by diplomacy but with contradictory interests, this is never going to happen in all cases. Many countries, particularly dictatorships but quite often also democracies such as the US, feel they can just ignore diplomacy if it is not backed up by anything more than a verbal lashing. Diplomacy needs something backing it up. At the moment this is the threat of some form of sanction (be it direct economic sanctions or more indirect be reducing the opportunities for that countries firms to operate in your market) or military action of some kind. Using military action as a threat can be extreme. How do you move between diplomacy and on to military action without something in the middle to show how serious your country is? If a country does not believe your threats, and you don’t really want to attack him you have to be the one to back down. Providing economic sanctions creates a way of hurting him without having to go to the worse stage†¦ which is military action. Military action is the obvious ‘hard’ alternative to sanctions. However it is not always possible. This could be because of domestic politics or because there is other significant actors in the international system who would react unfavorably to you engaging in military action, or else the consequences might be too severe. There are quite a few problems with military action apart from that it cant always be used due to politics. The most obvious is that it is an immense step up from diplomacy. The country you are going to attack needs to have done something serious to be able to justify an attack. Even if it is justifiable there are problems. Military action relies upon your country being powerful and being able to engage in military action – whereas anyone can implement some form of sanctions – and it is very costly. This is not only of course in terms of monetary cost to your country but also in lives lost and destroyed. There can also me many unintended consequences. You can intend the action to be a small police action but there is no guarantee that your opponent will see it that way so he may well strike back escalating towards full scale war. At the other extreme your actions my push a country towards falling apart and becoming a failed state. Yes it provides a very powerful tool for changing a state’s behavior- but most people would believe that it is not worth keeping the possibility of military action while getting rid of sanctions. Get rid of both and you essentially have no stick at all. States do not always respond to carrots – you need to provide a big enough carrot that they can forgo a national interest after all. In the case of two interests being diametrically opposed then this cost could be immense. C3: Violation of Human Rights Natural rights of citizens are selfishly violated by corrupt leaders of governments. This impacts not only the natural rights of citizens from other countries; it also affects the natural rights of their own citizens. a. Citizens of countries oppressed by economic sanctions suffer when intended relief efforts are suppressed by their own government intercepting supplies. The citizens are never the target, but rather the behaviors of corrupt leaders. Natural rights of citizens are denied when a corrupt leader interrupts the harmonious relations and it becomes necessary to impose sanctions. Further, I extend my VPC in that when the naturals rights of other nations are infringed upon by these corrupt leaders, political justification demands punishment in the least destructive manner after diplomacy has failed. b. Citizens are justified to demand their natural rights which are being denied to them by the very government which is supposed to protect them. When corrupt leaders give in to decency and cooperate, the sanctions go away. Sanctions are nothing more than a legitimate form of punishment to achieve a defined and acceptable code of behavior. Natural rights of citizens are denied when a corrupt leader interrupts the harmonious relations and it becomes necessary to impose sanctions. Further, I extend my VPC in that when the naturals rights of other nations are infringed upon by these corrupt leaders, political justification demands punishment in the least destructive manner after diplomacy has failed. Possible Rebuttal: Although careful studies of economic sanctions have cast doubt on their effectiveness, 1 anecdote can be powerful rhetorical tools. A single important case that demonstrates sanctions’ potential allows advocates to argue that their cause is more akin to the success than to the failures. Frequently, advocates point to the case of sanctions applied in the mid-1980s against the apartheid regime in South Africa as just such a case. On the face of it, South African sanctions appear to have been successful. In response to the outrages of apartheid, many countries adopted trade and financial sanctions and a significant amount of foreign investment was withdrawn from South Africa. After the adoption of sanctions, South Africa experienced economic difficulty and numerous domestic actors commented on how the economic situation was untenable and required political change. By 1994, Nelson Mandela had been elected President of South Africa. He and other black leaders attributed to economic sanctions a significant role in bringing about the democratic transition.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Mind and Rumors Essay

Rumors are dark, hurtful, mischievous things that are spread to cause destruction. Rumors have been around since the beginning of time, and are stronger now more than ever. Rumors are whispered, as if to indicate that they will not spread. Rumors are shouted, printed, posted, and broadcasted. Rumors are lies and those whom associate with rumors are bad people, or are they? Rumors are not always bad, and they don’t always turn out to be lies. There are many unknown things about rumors, like how and why are they really created? DiFonzo defines a rumor as â€Å"†¦unverified information statements that circulate about topics that people perceive as important; arise in situations of ambiguity, threat, or potential threat; and are used by people attempting to make sense or to manage risk† (375). A rumor starts out as an important thought in one persons mind. A thought that is kept to oneself merely stays a thought and never develops into a rumor. But, a thought that is just important enough to share with someone else morphs into a rumor. Rumors are not always intentional lies. They do however start out as unverified information. If a rumor is verified it is no longer a rumor, it then becomes factual information. The information that is passed from one person to many people is thought to be of importance. Whether the rumor pertains to something local, nationwide, global, social, political, public, or private it contains information that is substantial and has the possibility to be life changing. A rumor is targeted to a certain group of people. The spread of the rumor depends on the number of people who perceive the information as important. The group can range from a few people to the majority of the world. A rumor of â€Å"Bob cheated on Mary with Susan† would certainly be very important to a small number of people and could devastate their lives. On the other side of the spectrum a rumor that â€Å"An asteroid five times the size of Saturn is headed toward earth and total death is imminent† would also be of great importance and would affect many people. Rumors are born, bred, and sought out of human emotion. The amount of rumors increase in times of perceived danger, threat, and stress. â€Å"In practice it has been found that the emotional needs most frequently served by rumors are wish, fear, and hostility† (Knapp 361). A rumor is spread or sought to satisfy an emotional need of hope, comfort, fear, and hostility. Therefore it makes sense that the amount of rumors increases during stressful times. In the aftermath of the recent tornados in Oklahoma, rumors exploded. Social media, radio stations, and television stations broadcast the information from the moment of touchdown. Two different television stations broadcast contradicting information at the same time and facebook erupted with photos, videos, and information. People were calling other people, turning on the television, and getting on facebook to seek information or give it. They sought answers, comfort, and hope. Why then do some rumors flourish and are known all over the world and others die out after only a short run? One reason has already been brought up, the number of people who consider the information important. A rumor can live longer if it is adaptable to its audience. A rumor that has information added to or taken out may appear more important to certain groups. Another factor in a successful rumor is the length of it. A rumor that is long and complicated will be hard to remember and hard to tell. Another reason is the desire for humans to be accepted. People will agree with someone else even if they are not sure themselves to avoid hostility and risk losing other peoples good opinion of them. Perhaps people agree because of self-doubt. If one person thinks a rumor is wrong but is hesitant to disagree because the majority believe it to be true then they must be wrong and not the group. People’s personal and social anxiety can escalate a rumor fast and wide. If the majority of people are passive, have self-doubt, or want to avoid conflict then the number of people who perceive the rumor to be true increases. Sunstein states, â€Å"Often people will be suspicious of a rumor, or believe that it is not true, but they will not contradict the judgment of the relevant group, largely in order to avoid social sanctions† (393-394). In conclusion, it is sufficient to say that rumors are more complex than originally thought. They have distinct characteristics and classifications that define them. The most successful rumors are important to the world. If a rumor is assembled just right under the perfect conditions, the result are everlasting.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

1the Humiliation of Elizabeth Bennet

The Humiliation of Elizabeth Bennet And Mr. Darcy Susan Fraiman in her essay â€Å"The Humiliation of Elizabeth Bennet† argues that Elizabeth Bennet, the protagonist of Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice, is disempowered when she marries Fitzwilliam Darcy who succeeds Mr. Bennet as controlling literary figure. Fraiman claims that Elizabeth is a surrogate-son to her father trapped inside her female body during an age when gender roles were rigorously fixed.Judith Butler in her essay of 1990 called â€Å"Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory, â€Å"states that performing one's gender wrong initiates a set of punishments both obvious and indirect. Through the contribution of Butler's theory, this essay aims to demonstrate that it is not only, as Fraiman claims, Elizabeth Bennet who is punished by society for performing her gender wrong, but also Mr. Darcy. In respect to convention, Mister Darcy performs his gender wrong as well as he goes by a feminine name and is often passive, â€Å"unsocial† and â€Å"taciturn† as Elizabeth puts it.He admits: â€Å"I certainly have not the talent which some people possess of conversing easily with those I have never seen before† He admits to Elizabeth at the very that he was embarrassed when she asks him why he was â€Å"so shy of [her]†. It must be considered then that Darcy does not want to â€Å"humiliate? Elizabeth with his â€Å"extensive power† of a â€Å"paternalistic noble† but is rather humiliated by it himself. after all he has many â€Å"feminine† characteristics: He waits to be approached; he prefers listening to talking; e is receptive rather than aggressive; he is anxious about his reputation and judges people according to their manners; he is the person his friends come to for advice, and he writes letters instead of personally confronting people. To perform one's gender right, as Judith Butler asser ts in â€Å"Performative Acts and Gender Constitution,† means to perform one's gender in accordance with historical and cultural sanctions that change over time. Butler's essay deconstructs society's belief that gender is a fixed natural given.She questions if and how we exist before societal ideology's imposition by observing gender in a phenomenological way and finds that gender is always performed, but the performance varies according to time period. What does not vary, however, is society's punishment of people who don't perform their gender according to the current convention. Elizabeth Bennet has aligned herself with her father and his male, independent perspective. Mr. Bennet bequeaths [to Elizabeth] his ironic distance from the world, the habit of studying and appraising those around him, the role of social critic.Therefore Lizzie is less a daughter than a surrogate son, who by giving up the mother and giving in to the father, reaps the spoils of maleness. In regards to society, however, Lizzie's male independence is dangerous. She does not behave like a gentlewoman of her time who was expected to draw and do needlework indoors while waiting for a suitor to whisk her off to the altar. Ex. *The haughty Bingley sisters immediately declare her behavior unsuitable: â€Å"To walk three miles, or four miles, or five miles, or whatever it is, above her ankles in dirt, and alone, quite alone! What could she mean by it?It seems to me to show an abominable sort of conceited independence, a most country-town indifference to decorum† (Austen 25). *When Mr. Collins proposes to Lizzie, she doesn't employ â€Å"the usual practice of elegant females, but declines his offer as a â€Å"rational creature speaking the truth from her heart† (Austen 75). While Lizzie's decision to refuse the buffoonish Mr. Collins is justified, it is nonetheless precarious in her situation. If she and her sister Jane hadn't married Darcy and Bingley respectively, which can be regarded as the exceptions to the rule, they would have lost their parents? ntailed house to Mr. Collins. Lizzie, within Regency England society, is performing her gender „wrong? by not accepting a promising proposal. Instead, she displays typically male behavior: â€Å"You mean to frighten me, Mr. Darcy, by coming in all this state to hear me? But I will not be alarmed though your sister does play so well. There is a stubbornness about me that never can bear to be frightened at the will of others. My courage always rises with every attempt to intimidate me† (Austen 115). Obstinacy and audacity are not socially scripted feminine qualities. Lizzie turns down Mr.Darcy's proposal in an equally confident manner: â€Å"Every time Darcy opens his mouth, he is superseded by a speech of greater length and vehemence;† â€Å"Her language, her feelings, her judgments overwhelm his† (Fraiman 361). Elizabeth here not only matches Darcy in intellect, she tops hi m. Many of her characteristics would be highly-regarded in a man, but not in a woman. While letter-communication was common practice in Regency England for both women and men alike, the letter Mr. Darcy writes to Elizabeth is not a regular correspondence letter, but a letter that deals with his strong emotions in a very feminine fashion.In his need to justify himself for Elizabeth's accusations, he bares his soul in such a forthcoming, dignified, and eloquent manner as only a woman's love letter would be expected to accomplish. His letter is so well-composed that he likely dedicated hours of drafts to it. Austen emphasizes the uniqueness of Darcy's letter by putting male letter-writing into perspective. Charles Bindley's letters are described as chaotic, correspondence-related and short: â€Å"Charles writes in the most careless way imaginable.He leaves out half his words, and blots the rest,† claims his sister Caroline (Austen 33). Meanwhile, she employs feminine terms to de pict Mr. Darcy's writing: â€Å"do you always write such charming long letters† (Austen 32-3). The boyish Elizabeth, in contrast, writes two letters in Pride and Prejudice: both are addressed to Mrs. Gardiner and are simple correspondence letters. Mr. Darcy's letter therefore is less of a hostile takeover of authorial power, as Fraiman calls it (â€Å"her authorial powers wane†), but rather his only means of expressing himself to Elizabeth (Fraiman 377).He is not a â€Å"controlling literary figure† (Fraiman 383) that replaces Elizabeth's father, but someone who takes a great risk by revealing sensitive personal details which could be used to destroy him socially to a woman who has just refused him as a husband. In a very feminine way, Mr. Darcy gives Elizabeth power over his family's reputation and himself. Darcy's behavior so far has, as Butler puts it, â€Å"initiate[d] a set of punishments both obvious and indirect† (Butler 279). Elizabeth especially, as a member of her society, misreads him repeatedly and therefore indirectly disempowers him because he cannot make himself heard by her.Mr. Darcy's passive feminine side is generally misread by society as pride, which shows that to perform one's gender „wrong? results in punishment. Darcy doesn't court Elizabeth in the way she and society expect; therefore he, just as much as Lizzie, suffers â€Å"a loss of clout† (Fraiman 377). The gender-performance that is expected of Elizabeth and Darcy by society runs anathema to their original one and they realize toward the end of the novel that they have to succumb to society's gender-script if they want to be together.As Susan Fraiman argues, Elizabeth, as a woman, has to relinquish some of her power: â€Å"Elizabeth marries a decent man and a large estate, but at a certain cost;† â€Å"Darcy disempowers Elizabeth if only because of the positions they each occupy in the social schema: because he is a man and she is a wife† (Fraiman 384). The cost is her compromise, but Darcy has to make it as well; the cost might even be a gain if Darcy respects Elizabeth as a wife, and there is no evidence in the novel that he won? t. Conclusion: Fraiman's blame of Mr.Darcy disempowering Elizabeth is misdirected in that she reads him solely as a man, not as a person who has as much trouble performing his gender right as does Lizzie. Darcy has to give up passive observing and letter-writing in favor of action, such as saving the damsel in distress Lydia. Fraiman's critique of Elizabeth marrying Darcy also does not invoke singleness as a liberating alternative, in which case Lizzie would lose even more power. The novel rather reveals the limits of everyone’s personal autonomy in a society where gender roles are fixed.Mr. Darcy never sought to take Elizabeth's power or independence away-quite the opposite- they caused his falling in love with her. If Elizabeth is disempowered after her marriage, the b lame must be directed at Regency society, not Mr. Darcy; marriage itself is always a compromise, after all. Mr. Darcy, just as much as Elizabeth, sacrifices a great deal of his original individuality by aligning his gender-performance with Regency society's convention. But, as Lizzie says: â€Å"We do not suffer by accident. †